# Level 4 Courses in Physics

# PH 4001 – Solid state physics

**Dependencies:** PH3001,PH3053

**References:** Introduction to Solid State Physics (C. Kittel), Solid State Physics (J.R. Hook and H.E. Hall)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus:** Crystal structure of solids: Elementary crystallography, Typical crystal structures, Imaging of crystal structures: Scattering, Reciprocal lattices, X-ray diffraction, Neutron Scattering and electron scattering, Crystal Dynamics: Lattice Vibrations in one-dimensional crystals, Lattice Vibrations in three dimensional crystals, Heat capacity from lattice vibrations, Anharmonic effects, Thermal conduction by phonons, Free electrons in metals: The free electron model, Transport properties of the conduction electrons, Nearly free electron theory, Band theory of solids: Classification of crystalline solids, Band structure effective masses, Semiconductors: Holes, Optical properties of semiconductors, The Hall effect, Non-equilibrium carrier densities, Magnetism: Diamagnetism and paramagnetism, Ordered magnetic materials, Ferromagnetism, Hard and soft magnets, Superconductivity: Magnetic properties of superconductors, Theory of superconductors, High temperature superconductors; Electrical properties of insulators: Dielectrics, Real metals: Fermi surfaces, Experimental determination of Fermi surfaces; Crystallization and amorphous solids, Polymers.

# PH 4002 – Methods in computational physics

**Dependencies:** CS1001,CS2001

**References:** Computational Physics (S.E. Koonin), Numerical Recipes (WH Press et. al.), Statistics for Nuclear and Particle Physicists (L Lyons)

**Assessment:** 30% for assignments and 70% for laboratory examination

**Syllabus:** Experimental errors; random & systematic errors, combining errors, linear situations, non-linear situations, Distributions; Binomial, Poisson, Gaussian, correlated variables, error matrix manipulations, Parameter fitting & hypothesis testing; Maximum likelihood method, Least square fitting, Kinematic fitting, Basic mathematical operations; numerical differentiation, numerical quadrature, finding roots, Ordinary differential equations; simple methods, multistep and implicit methods, Runge-kutta methods, stability, Boundary value and Eigen value problems; Numerov algorithm, Matrix operations; inversion, eigenvalues of a tri-diagonal matrix, reduction to tri-diagonal form, Minimisation; Golden section search, search with first derivatives, Downhill simplex method, Powell’s method, Modelling data; fitting data to a model, data with errors in both co-ordinates, non-linear models, Monte-Carlo calculations; simple Monte-Carlo applications, using random numbers, generating random variables with a specified distribution, algorithm of Metropolis et. al., the Ising model in 2D, non-uniform distributions and correlated variables, non-physics applications.

# PH 4005 – Electronic communication Techniques

**Dependencies:** PH2001

**References:** Telecommunication Principles, Circuits and Systems (S Ramabhadran), The Art of Electronics (P Horowitz and W. Hill), Electronic Communication Techniques (PH Young)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus:** Basics of electronic communication techniques; Radio frequency amplifiers; small signal RF amplifier analysis and design, coupling tuned circuits, Oscillators; oscillator circuit analysis, Hartley, Colpitts, Clapp, tuned/untuned oscillators, stability and spectral purity, crystal oscillators, Signal Modulation; voice transmission and multiplexing, amplitude modulation (AM) and demodulation, AM receiver systems, gain and stability, noise considerations, Transmitter circuits; power amplifiers, impedance-matching networks, Receiver circuits; mixers, tuning, filter requirements, distortion and feed back, Frequency and phase modulation; FM transmitter and receiver circuits, Pulse and digital modulation; pulse code modulation (PCM), Data communication concepts; coding, signalling (Baud) rate, bandwidth considerations, power in digital signals, PCM system analysis, PCM telephone circuitry, error detection, data errors and error control, serial transmission and interfacing, carrier systems and modems, synchronous communication techniques, Open system inter-connect and ISDN, Computer applications in digital communication systems, Antennas and radio wave propagation; antenna radiation, power and electric field strength, dipole antenna, folded dipole, Yagi-Uda, loop antenna, dish antennas, Basics of TV reception and transmission; digital radio and space communication, fibre-optics communication systems.

# PH 4007 – Industrial management

**Dependencies:** N/A

**References:** Wheldon’s Costing Simplified (Owler and Brown), Financial Accounting (Esskew and Jenson), Production of Inventory Management (Fogarty, Blackstone and Hoffman), Organizational Behaviors (Fred Luthans), Human Resources Management (Graham and Bennett)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus:** Industry and Business: characteristics, competitive advantage, business strategy, entrepreneurship, Financial Management: functions, the double entry system, ledgers and journals, trial balance, trading and profit & loss account, balance sheet, manufacturing accounts, cash flow, financial analysis. Cost and Management Accountancy: allocation of overheads, depreciation methods, job costing, process costing, standard costing, variance analysis, marginal costing, break-even analysis, profitability analysis, valuation of stocks. Management Information Systems: scope of Information Technology in an industrial organization, design of MIS, decision support systems, software requirements analysis. Project and operations planning: project scheduling using network methods, resource allocation, optimization, materials management, manufacturing resources planning systems (MRP), Organizational management: overview of organizational theory, relevant industrial psychology, human relations and counseling, organizational growth and development, organizational structures and systems, understanding the environment and strategy, management and leadership roles, management of organizations and introducing changes, fundamentals of marketing, Industrial law: contract of employment and its relevance in present day context, comparison between law of contract and employment contract, companies Act in general, Partnership law, employment relationships, introducing sale of goods, bills of exchange and insurance law, Industrial disputes Act, Trade union Act, Termination of employment Act, Social welfare legislation; EPF Act, ETF Act, Payment of gratuity Act, etc.

# PH 4008 – Nuclear and particle physics

**Dependencies:** PH3004

**References:** The Atomic Nucleus (Evans), Nuclei & Particles (E Segre), The Atomic Nucleus (JM Reid), Particles & Nuclei (Martin Lavelle), Basic Ideas and Concepts in Nuclear Physics (Heyde), Particle Physics (Khanna)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus:** Nuclear forces; The deuteron; Charge independence of nuclear forces; Isotopic spin; Spin dependent and Tensor forces; Nucleon-nucleon forces; Exchange forces; Nuclear reactions; General features of cross-sections; Inverse reaction; Detailed balance; Reaction mechanisms; Q valve; Threshold energy; The scattering theory, The compound nucleus; Direct reactions; Heavy-Ion nuclear reactions; Nuclear models; The shell model; Energy shells and angular momentum; The magnetic dipole moment of the nucleus; Calculation of the magnetic dipole moment. The electric quadruple moment of the nucleus; Excited states of nuclei; Some general features of excited states; The decay of excited states; Collective nuclear model; Rotational levels; Leptons and the electromagnetic and weak interactions; The quarks Mass; Lifetime and other particle properties; The instability of the heavy leptons; Muon decay; Parity violation; Nucleon and the strong interactions; Properties of the proton and the neutron; The quark model of nucleons; pions and other bosons and their decay modes; Feynmann diagrams Spin; and intrinsic parity; Classification of Hadrons and Quarks; Particle accelerators; The Cyclotron, Betatron and the Synchrotron; Colliding beams.

# PH 4009 – Mathematical physics II

**Dependencies:** AM2006, PH3057,PH2004

**References:** Mathematical Physics (E Butkov), Mathematical Methods for Physicists (G. Arfken), Introduction to Fourier Transforms (K.A.I.L. W. Gamalth), The theory of Relativity (C Moller), An introduction to Theory of Relativity (W.G.V. Rosser)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus:** Laplace transforms; properties, inversion problem, convolution theorem, applications. Complex variables; Cauchy-Riemann condition, transformations, Cauchy theorem and integral formula, theory of residues and its applications, branch points and branch cuts, Cauchy principle value integral. Fourier series; Dirichlet conditions, convergence theorem, convergence in the mean. Parseval’s theorem, spectrum analysis, parity properties, cosine and sine series, applications, differentiation and integration. Fourier analysis; integral theorem, cosine and sine transforms, derivation of Dirac delta functions, basic theorems, analysis of transient waveforms, applications, convolution theorem, physical interpretation, auto-correlation, cross-correlation, linear response functions, transfer functions, Fraunhoffer diffraction, diffraction at a slit, from a grating and two diffracting screens. Green’s Functions and Response functions; Green\’s functions, dissipative response junctions. solutions of linear differential equations, eigen function expansion, Green’s functions in spherical and cylindrical polar co-ordinates. Tensors; covariant, contravariant and mixed tensors, symmetric and skew symmetric tensors, operations, quotient rule, pseudo, metric and Levi-Civita tensors, Christoffel symbols, covariant derivatives, tensor differentiation. Special Relativity; Minkowskian space-time; 4-vectors, Lorentz transformations of 4-velocity, 4-momentum, 4-force, 4-current density and Maxwell’s equations.

# PH 4010 – Quantum mechanics II

**Dependencies:** PH3001

**References:** Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (BH Bransden & CJ Joachain), Quantum Physics (MS Rogalski & SB Palmer), Quantum Physics (S Gasiorowicz), Quantum Mechanics (PJE Peebles), Introductory Quantum Mechanics (RL Liboff)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus:** Wave packets; Momentum space wave function; Time variation of expectation values; Ehrenfest\’s theorem; Virial theorem; Matrix representation of wave functions and operators; Time evolution of a quantum system; Angular momentum: orbital angular momentum operator, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, matrix representations of angular momentum operators, spin angular momentum operator and its general properties, addition of angular momenta; Approximation methods: time-independent perturbation theory for non-degenerate and degenerate levels, fine-structure of one-electron atoms, variational method, time-dependent perturbation theory for transitions induced by constant and periodic perturbations, Fermi\’s golden rule; Several- and many-particle systems: systems of identical particles and the physical meaning of identity, symmetric and anti-symmetric wave functions and their construction from unsymmetrized functions, Fermi gas, Pauli exclusion principle, two-electron atoms and application of approximation methods to obtain their ground and excited state energies, L-S coupling and j-j coupling schemes for many-electron atoms; Interaction of one-electron atoms with: electromagnetic radiation, constant external electric fields, constant external magnetic fields; Introduction to quantum collision theory.

# PH 4030 – Advanced physics laboratory II

**Dependencies:** PH1020,PH1021,PH3030

**References:** Refer the practical instruction sheets

**Assessment:** Continuous assessment

**Syllabus:** This course is intended to give a further training in experimental physics techniques through advanced laboratory experiments in physics & micro-computer training kits, design & construction of electronic circuits and workshop training. The students are expected to execute and document the experiments including experimental procedures, results and data analysis.

# PH 4031 – Engineering physics laboratory II

**Dependencies:** PH1021, PH2021,PH3031

**References:** Refer the practical instruction sheets

**Assessment:** Continuous assessment

**Syllabus:** This course consists of set-practicals on advanced electronics, non-linear electronics, instrumentation techniques, engineering software tools, computer hardware engineering, micro controller interfacing and applications, and mini projects on design and construction of electronic circuits, and workshop technology.

# PH 4040 – Physics project

**Dependencies:** Permission of the department

**References:** N/A

**Assessment:** Dissertation and Seminar

**Syllabus:** Individual or group of students will be assigned a Physics based research project of one-year duration. A dissertation submitted on the project will be examined at a seminar presentation.

# PH 4041 – Engineering physics project

**Dependencies:** Permission of the department

**References:** N/A

**Assessment:** Dissertation and Seminar

**Syllabus:** Individual or group of students will be assigned a Engineering Physics based research project of one-year duration. A dissertation submitted on the project will be examined at a seminar presentation.

# PH 4042 – Computational physics project

**Dependencies:** Permission of the department

**References:** N/A

**Assessment:** Dissertation and Seminar

**Syllabus:** Individual or group of students will be assigned a Computational Physics based research project of one-year duration. A dissertation submitted on the project will be examined at a seminar presentation.