# Level 3 Courses in Physics

# PH 3001 – Quantum Mechanics I

**Dependencies:** PH1001

**References:** Quantum Physics (R Resnick & R Eisberg), Quantum Physics (MS Rogalski & SB Palmer), Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (BH Bransden & CJ Joachain)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus:** Inadequacies of classical physics and evolution of quantum physics; Particles and wave packets; Heisenberg uncertainty principle and its consequences, some illustrations of uncertainty principle; Wave function and its interpretation, position probability density, superposition principle; Time-dependent Schrodinger equation; Conservation of probability, probability current density; Dirac bracket notation; Linear operators and their properties: eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of operators, Hermitian operators, adjoint operator; Expansions in eigenfunctions: Orthogonality, degeneracy, probability amplitudes, discrete and continuous spectra; Commutators, commuting observables, compatibility; Expectation values; Time-independent Schrodinger equation, stationary states; Energy quantisation; Properties of the energy eigenfunctions; General solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation; Solutions of the time-independent Schrodinger equation for a particle moving in a region of zero potential, step potential, barrier potential, finite square well potential, infinite square well potential, linear harmonic oscillator potential and square box potential; Symmetry and parity; One-electron atoms: separation of the time-independent Schrodinger equation in spherical polar co-ordinates, energy levels, quantum numbers, degeneracy, eigenfunctions of the bound states, probability densities; Orbital angular momentum and orbital magnetic dipole moment of electron; Stern-Gerlach experiment, existence of spatial quantisation, spin angular momentum and spin magnetic dipole moment of electron; Spin-orbit interaction; Total angular momentum; Spin-orbit interaction energy and the hydrogen energy levels; Transition rates and selection rules

## PH 3002 – Environmental physics

**Dependencies:** N/A

**References:** Air pollution (M N Rao and H V N Rao), Atmospheric Science – An introductory Survey (J M Wallace and P V Hobbs), Fundamentals of Environmental Pollution (K Kannan), Environmental Air Analysis (P R Trivedi and G Raj), Climate and the Environment – The Atmospheric Impact on Man (J F Griffiths)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus: **The earth’s atmosphere, composition, temperature profile, exosphere and magnetosphere; Solar radiation and insolation, effect of atmosphere, pollution level and turbidity factor, the solar radiation budget; Dynamic meteorology, motions of the atmosphere; Thermodynamics of the atmosphere, temperature inversions and its effects; Greenhouse effect and global warming, three dimensional climate model; Climate change and sea level rise, feedback loops; Ozone depletion and its consequences, preventive measures; Clouds, Precipitation and Water, humidity, mist and fog, acid rains; Droughts and the E1 Nino effect, southern oscillatory index; Water pollution, hydrolic loading; Geophysical environment, earth and its interior, geological structure, continental drift, earthquakes, volcanoes, landslips; Physical oceanography: horizontal circulation, Ekman spiral, geostrophic currents, westward intensification; Vertical circulation, wind-induced circulation, equatorial upwelling, coastal upwelling, Langmuir circulation, thermohaline circulation, surface circulation, Gulf stream eddies, deep water masses; The earth’s electrical environment, atmospheric electricity, cloud electrification and thunderstorms, lightning hazards and protection; Air pollution, detection techniques, recommended buffer zones, Pollution due to electric fields & electromagnetic radiation, potential hazards of weak alternating fields & microwaves; Sound & vibration, acoustics of buildings, reduction of noise, Sri Lanka standards, supersonic waves, inaudible sound and vibration, measurement of vibration; Energy sources & their impact on the environment; Policy making; Environment Impact assessment (EIA) – physical aspects; Field visits to industrial sites exposing students to real environmental problems

## PH 3003 – Introduction to Computer Hardware

**Dependencies:** PH1003,PH2001,PH2002

**References:** The Art of Electronics (Paul Horowitz and Wind field Hill), Digital Systems, (Ronald J. Tocci)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus: **Number systems and codes, BCD and ASCII codes. Logic gates. Designing of combinational logic circuits, Minimization of logic expressions using algebraic and Karnaugh map methods, Minterm and maxterm expressions, Construction of a Full adder, Decoders, Encoders, Multiplexes, Demultiplexes, and theirs applications, Characteristics of TTL, ECL, PMOS, NMOS and CMOS gates, Open collector devices, Sequential logic circuits, Flip-Flops as a memory element, S-R, J, K, and Master-Slave Flip-Flops, D and T Flip-Flops, Applications of Flip-Flops, Asynchronous circuits, Registers, Shift registers, Serial and parallel data transfer (SISO, SIPO, PISO, and PIPO) Pseudo random number generators and scrambling-discrambling of information, Frequency division and counting, Asynchronous (ripple) counters, Counters with Mod numbers, Up counters, Down counters, Up/Down counters, IC Asynchronous counters, Digital arithmetic in the 2S complement system, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division of numbers. Parallel binary adder, Complete parallel adder with registers, Carry propagation IC parallel adder/subtractor, Binary multiplier. Integrated Logic Circuits families, TTL series, Tristate TTL devices, Bus-oriented devices, MOSFET and CMOS series, CMOS Transmission gate IC interfacing TTL Driving CMOS and NMOS, CMOS Driving TTL, Analysis of synchronous circuits, State diagrams, Synthesis of synchronous circuits, Transition-excitation tables, Memory systems, Digital data communication

## PH 3004 – Nuclear physics

**Dependencies:** N/A

**References:** The Atomic Nucleus (J.M. Reid), Nuclear Physics (S.B. Patel), Atomic Nucleus (Hygens), Nuclear Physics (Burcham), Introductory Nuclear Physics (Puri & Babbar), Introduction to Nuclear Physics (Cottingham & Greenwood), Elementary Particles (Thorndike), The Fundamental Particles (Swartz)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus: **General survey of radioactive decay; Half Life; Series Decay; Artificial Radioactivity, Applications of Radioactivity; Biological effects of radiation; Alpha decay; Barrier penetration; Fine structure of Alpha spectra; The theory of Alpha decay; Systematics of Alpha decay; Rutherford scattering, Beta decay; Experiments on the neutrino; Systematics of Beta decay; The Fermi theory of Beta decay; Electron and positron energy spectra; Electron capture; The neutrino mass; The theory of Gamma decay: Internal conversion; Nuclear isomerism; Nuclear sizes and nuclear masses; The distribution of nuclear matter in nuclei; The masses and binding energies of nuclei in their ground states; The semiempirical mass formula; The Beta stability valley; The masses of the Beta stable nuclei; The energetics of Alpha decay and fission; Ground state properties of nuclei; The liquid drop model; Nuclear potential well, Introduction to shell model; Magic numbers; Nuclear chart; Power from nuclear fission; Induced fission; Neutron cross sections for U235 and U238; The fission process; The chain reaction; Nuclear reactors; Radioactive waste; Nuclear fusion; The sun; Hydrogen burning; The passage of charge particles through matter; Energy loss due to ionization; Passage of Gamma rays through matter; Introduction to particle physics; Nomenclature and Catalogue of particles; Conservation laws; Introduction to quarks and basic interactions in nature; Brief introduction to nuclear detectors

## PH 3005 – Medical physics

**Dependencies:** N/A

**References:** Biomedical instrumentation and measurements (L. Cromwell, F.J. Weibell and E.A. Pfeiffer), Medical Physics (J.R. Cameron and J.G. Skofronick), Radiation protection of patients (Wootton), The Physics of Radiology (H.E John), The Physics of medical imaging (S. Webb)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus: **Bio mechanics; Forces on and in the human body, Physics of the functions of important organs; eye, ear, lungs, heart and central nerves system, Physics of different measuring instruments used in diagnosis; blood pressure, heart beat, body temperature, Application of Physics in diagnostic techniques; ultrasound scanning; ECG, EEG, CT scanning, NMR imaging (MRI scanning), Use of Lasers and optical fibers in medicine, Hazards of EM radiation; biological damage. X-rays; production of X-rays and their applications in radiography, Radiation; interaction of radiation with matter, radiation units, radiation detectors, maximum permissible dose, radiation damage, radiation protection, Nuclear medicine; radio nuclide imaging, Radiotherapy; external beam therapy, Barchytherapy, unsealed-source therapy, dosimetry, Treatment planning; selection of treatment technique, determination of dose/ time/volume relationship

## PH 3006 – Operational amplifier applications

**Dependencies:** PH1003,PH2001

**References:** Operational Amplifiers with linear Integrated Circuits (W.D. Stanley), Microelectronic Circuits (Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith), The Art of Electronics (Paul Horowitzs and Windfield Hill)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus: **Introduction to ICs The 741 Op Amp and its constituent building blocks, Small signal analysis of the input and the output stages of 741, CMRR, Current mirrors and Voltage shifters, Basic properties of Op Amps, The Golden Rules, Slew rate, Frequency response, small signal Equivalent circuit for Op Amp, Linear Op Amp Circuits; Inverting and non-inverting configurations, Current and Voltage amplifiers, A.C. Amplifier, Bootstrap connection, Electronic ammeters and Voltmeters, Instrumentation amplifier, Phase shift circuits, Integrators and Differentiators, Nonlinear Op Amp Applications; Logarithmic amplifiers, Rectifier circuits, Holding circuits, Clamping an limiting circuits, Voltage regulators, Voltage multipliers, Comparators, Schmitt’s trigger, Oscillators and waveform Generators; The 555 timer, Active Filters, Introduction to Data Conversion Circuits; D/A and A/D converters

## PH 3010 – Microcotrollers and embedded systems

**Dependencies:** PH1021,PH2021,PH2001

**References:** Embedded C Programming and the Microchip PIC (Richard H. Barnett, Larry O’Cull), HDL Chip Design: A Practical Guide for Designing, Synthesizing & Simulating ASICs & FPGAs Using VHDL or Verilog (Douglas J. Smith)

**Assessment:** End of semester examination/assignment

**Syllabus: **An overview on microprocessors, Introduction to microcontrollers, Hardware structure and concept of microcontroller, Sensors and transducers, Introduction to CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Device), FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), and VHDL (Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language), Introduction to software environment; programming IDE (Integrated Design Environment), programming languages, programming techniques, Microcontroller programming and hardware synthesis; inputs, outputs, logical operations and masking, analogue to digital conversion, interrupts, output-compare, input-capture and pulse width modulation, serial communication, peripheral drivers

## PH 3020 – Computational physics laboratory

**Dependencies:** PH1021,PH2021

**References:** Refer practical instruction sheets

**Assessment:** Continuous assessment and end of semester laboratory examination

**Syllabus: **This practical course focuses on providing the student with hands-on learning in computing through relevant laboratory work. The course involves exercises on computing such as computer programming, circuit design and analysis using standard software packages, computer simulations and micro controller base experiments. Each student is expected to prepare an individual practical report. The maximum number of practicals possible will be conducted within a semester

## PH 3021 – Computational Physics Seminar

**Dependencies:** CS1001,CS2001

**References:** N/A

**Assessment:** One-hour seminar based on a summary report

**Syllabus: **This course focuses on improving the self-learning and presentation skills of students. Students are supposed to study a specific topic in the area of Computational Physics and present their finding at a seminar.

## PH 3030 – Advanced physics laboratory I

**Dependencies:** PH1020,PH2002

**References:** Refer the practical instruction sheets

**Assessment:** Continuous assessment

**Syllabus: **This course is focused on the methods of experimental Physics. Particular emphasis is placed on three aspects of experimentation: laboratory techniques, including both the execution and the documentation of an experiment; data analysis, including the treatment of statistical and systematic errors and computer-aided analysis of experimental data; and, written communication of experimental procedures and results. The concepts and skills of conducting experiments will be given gradually through a series of physics experiments. Statistical packages will be used for the analysis of the experimental data

## PH 3032 – Embedded systems laboratory

**Dependencies:** PH1021,PH2021

**References:** Embedded C Programming and the Microchip PIC (Richard H. Barnett, Larry O’Cull)

**Assessment:** Continuous assessment

**Syllabus: **Introduction to microcontrollers; development cycle, language tools, simulators emulators and debuggers, programmers (hardware / software), boot loaders, Handling built-in peripherals; IO ports, interrupts, UART and serial communication, PWM/Timers/Counters, ADC, analogue comparator, timers/counters, EEPROM, Flash memory, External Peripheral Integration; LED, SSD, switch, keypad, LCD, stepper motors

## PH 3051 – Instrumentation physics

**Dependencies:** PH1001, PH1003, PH2001, PH2002, PH2003,PH3004

**References:** Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments (W.R. Leo), Sensors and Transducers (Ian R. Sinclair)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus: **An introduction to instrumentation physics; Transducer as an electrical element; Modeling a transducer; Connecting transducer to circuit elements; Types of transducers/sensors: temperature transducers, optical transducers, displacement transducers, flow sensors, pressure sensors, strain gauges, electromagnetic induction transducers; Charged particle optics: charged particle/ion sources, ion/mass analyzers, magnetic ion deflector, quadrupole ion filter, time-of-flight technique, ion cyclotron resonance; Ion maneuvering techniques/devices: electrostatic lenses, electrostatic ion reflectors, time lag focusing technique, single ion selection techniques; Ionization detectors: ionization chamber, proportional counter, Geiger-Müller counter, multi-wire proportional chamber, drift chamber, time projection chamber; Scintillation detectors: types of scintillators and their properties, photo multipliers, light guides, practical aspects of scintillation detectors; Semi-conductor detectors: detector characteristics of a semi-conductor, Si-diode detector, position sensitive detector, Ge-detector, important parameters in the operation of semi-conductor detectors; Charged particle detectors: electron multiplier, channeltron, multi-channel plate; Charged coupled devices; Imaging techniques; Physical properties of vacuum: vacuum units, vacuum regions, flow regions, Knudsen number; Flow of gas through vacuum systems: conductance, coupling of conductance of tubes, effective pumping speed, general pump down equation; Sources of gas within a vacuum system; Mechanical pumps: rotary vane pump, rotary piston pump and lobe pump; High vacuum pumps: diffusion pump, turbo-molecular pump, cryogenic pump, ion pump; Vacuum gauges: thermal conductivity gauges, ionization gauges, hot cathode gauges, cold cathode gauges; Leak detection

## PH 3052 – Electromagnetic fields I

**Dependencies:** PH2003

**References:** Classical Electrodynamics (John David Jackson), Classical Electricity and Magnetism (W.K.H. Panofsky and M Philips), Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems (Edward C. Jordan, Keith G. Balmain)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus: **Maxwell’s equations, scalar potential, Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations, uniqueness theorem, electrostatic potential energy, Boundary – Value problems in electrostatics; method of images, method of inversion, boundary – value problems with azimuthal symmetry, boundary – value problems in cylindrical and spherical coordinates, mixed boundary conditions, Time varying fields; conservation laws, vector and scalar potentials, gauge transformations, Poynting’s vector, Electromagnetic Waves; wave equation, dispersion of em waves, em waves in unbounded isotropic medium and good conductors, characteristic impedance, pressure of em waves, em waves in plasma and plasma frequency, em waves in ionosphere, Reflection of em waves; boundary conditions, Fresnel’s relations; reflection at air/dielectric interface, reflection at air/good conductor interface, Electromagnetic Radiation; radiation fields, radiated energy, Hertz potential, electric and magnetic dipole radiation, radiation from an accelerated charge, antennas, Wave guides; cut – off frequency, modes of propagation, wave impedance, Transmission lines; equation of telegraphy, characteristic impedance, voltage standing ratio, impedance matching and stub lines

## PH 3053 – Statistical physics

**Dependencies:** PH1004

**References:** Heat and Thermodynamics (Gupta & Roy), Thermodynamics & Statistical Physics (Zemansky), Statistical Thermodynamics (Gupta)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus: **Basic probability theory, binomial distribution, fluctuations. Laws of Thermodynamics; second law and third law; Kinetic Theory of Gases; Maxwellian distribution, phase space and Boltzman canonical distribution. Statistical Mechanics; Basic concept of statistical mechanics, Boltzman, Fermi-Dirac and Bose Einstein statistics, statistic of classical limit, statistical mechanical interpretation of equilibrium state. Thermodynamics; statistical mechanical interpretation of the zeroth law and first law, reversible change, application of first law to statistical mechanics, statistical mechanical interpretation of second law, Carnot’s theorem, absolute thermodynamical temperature scale, Gibb’s paradox, thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell’s relations, application of thermodynamics to surface tension, Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, Claussius-Clapeyron equation, vapour pressure curve, statistical mechanical interpretation of third law of thermodynamics, Quantum Statistics; Quantum statistics of gas like assemblies, statistical mechanics of ideal gases, statistical mechanics of conduction electrons in a metal, Fermi energy, Fermi temperature, thermal capacity, energy, pressure, degenerated Fermi gas, white dwarf stars, statistical mechanics of equilibrium radiation, Planck’s formula, Wein’s law, Stephan\’s law, pressure exerted by equilibrium radiation, energy emitted by a black body, thermodynamics of black body radiation

## PH 3055 – Data acquisition and signal processing

**Dependencies:** PH2001

**References:** Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments (W.R. Leo), Digital Systems (R.J. Tocci), Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications (R.S. Gaonkar), Interfacing Sensors to the IBM PC (W.J. Tompkins and J.G. Webster)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus: **Elements of a computer controlled Data Acquisition system; Signals and Systems; continuous and discrete-time signals and their properties, Noise sources; spectral density and circuit calculations, pile-up effects, signal to noise ratio, Interference control and selectivity; passive and active filters, filter circuit design, ideal and non-ideal frequency selective filters, Sampling; reconstruction of signals, aliasing, discrete-time processing of continuous-time signals, Signal processing electronics; energy measurements, equivalent circuits of detectors, signal termination, charge amplification, voltage and current amplification, Timing methods and systems; leading edge trigger, zero crossing trigger, constant fraction trigger, Signal conversion electronics; Digital to Analogue Converters, Voltage to Frequency Converters, Analogue to Digital Converters, Time to Amplitude Converters, Time to Digital Converters, Multichannel Analyzers, Basic computer system organization, Microprocessor architecture; machine language and assembly language representation, computer arithmetic, Memory devices; semiconductor ROMs and RAMs, ROM applications, Static and Dynamic RAMs and their operations, input/output, Interfacing devices to the IBM PC; essentials of serial and parallel interfacing, interfacing sensors, signal conditioning, Microcontrollers; microcontroller applications in the laboratory, Computer controlled electronics; examples of data acquisition systems

## PH 3057 – Mathematical physics I

**Dependencies:** AM1001, AM1002, AM1003, AM1004, AM2001, AM2002, AM2005

**References:** Mathematical Physics (E Butkov), Mathematical Methods for Physicists (G Arfken), Applied Mathematics (FB Hiderbrand)

**Assessment:** End of semester written examination

**Syllabus: **Scalar and vector fields; potential theory, curvilinear co-ordinates. Partial differential equations and boundary conditions; method of separation of variables. Gamma and Beta functions. Analytical mechanics; generalized coordinates, forces and momentum, D’Alembarts principle, Lagrange and Hamiltonian equation of motion. Vector spaces: bases and co-ordinates, linear operators, change of bases, eigenvectors, diagonalization, principle axis transformation, Dirac notations, completeness relation, simultaneous eigenstates, unitary transformation, Schrödinger and Heisenberg equation of motion. Generalized eigenvalue problem; simultaneous reduction of two quadratic forms. Vibrating systems; oscillations with 2 or 3 degrees of freedom and many degrees of freedom, normal co-ordinates, harmonic oscillator, Hermite polynomials. Problems involving spherical and cylindrical systems; solution of Laplaces’ equation in spherical and cylindrical polar coordinates, potential problems. Sturm-Liouville theory on orthogonality functions. Dirac delta functions; properties, representations of delta functions, delta sequences and their properties. Variational method: Euler-Lagrange equation, applications, Hamiltonian principle, problems with constraints, Rayleigh-Ritz method