Teaching undergraduates for special degrees in Chemistry, Botany and Zoology commenced in 1963. Thereafter from 1983 onwards new course units have been introduced for undergraduates reading for the General Degree as well.

Course units offered by the Department  for undergraduates reading for a  B. Sc. General Degree during second year and third year


Special Degree in Nuclear Medical Science

This is a new course scheduled to be offered by the Department. The main objective of the course is to provide knowledge and practical skills in Nuclear Medicine which is a medical specialty that uses radioactive chemical compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Second year Courses

Dependencies: None
Syllabus: Stability of the Nucleus, Radioactive decay law, radioactive equilibrium, Radioactive decay calculations, Types of radioactive decay, alpha decay, beta decay, gamma emission, spontaneous fission, Radiation interactions, Radiation detection, Natural radiation background, Applications of radioactivity and radiation.
Assessment: End of semester written examination
Suggested readings: Radiochemistry (C. Keller)

Dependencies: None
Syllabus: Natural sources: Cosmic radiation, Factors affecting dose; Cosmogenic radionuclides; Terrestrial radiation, Radon; Sources and movement; Production in terrestrial materials; Transfer from water and natural gases; Exposure; Dose, Extractive industries, Energy production from coal; Use of phosphate rock
Man made sources; Radioisotope production and use; Nuclear power production; Civilian nuclear reactors; Military installations; Atmospheric nuclear testing; Underground nuclear testing; Waste disposal; Accidents, Treaties: Non Proliferation Treaty, Comprehensive test ban Treaty, Radioactive contamination of the environment: radionuclide release and deposition, environmental countermeasures and remediation .
Assessment: End of semester written examination
Suggested Readings:
Health effects of exposure to low level ionizing radiation (W.R. Hendee and F.M. Edwards)

Third Year Courses

Dependencies: None
Syllabus: Principles of radiobiology: Biologic interactions and measurement of effects: Direct and Indirect action, Radiolysis of water, Linear energy Transfer and Relative Biological Effectiveness; The effects of radiation at the molecular and sub cellular levels: effect of radiation on macro molecules, radio sensitivity of the nucleus, chromosome damage; Cellular effects of radiation: giant cells, inter phase death and apoptosis, radiation cell death and reproductive capacity, Target theories and cell survival curves: radio sensitivity of the different phases of the cell cycle, Elkind recovery; Reparable Damage: division delay, position of G2 block recovery from sub lethal damage, repair mechanism, recovery from potentially lethal damage; Early effects of radiation: acute radiation syndromes whole body radiation, cellular basis of the total body syndromes, cell renewal systems, LD50, human syndromes, Local tissue damage: effects of irradiation on gonads and skin, the immune system; Late effects of radiation : life span shortening, genetic damage cytogenetic damage, doubling dose ,Foetal irradiation Prenatal and Neonatal death, congenital malformation, childhood malignancies, Other malignant Diseases ; Radiation effect Factors: Dose and rate effects, oxygen effect ,radiosensitisers and radioprotectors, hypoxic cell sensitisers.
Assessment: Semester end examination.
Suggested Readings: An Introduction to Radiobiology (A.H.W. Nias), Biological effects of Radiation (J.E.Coggle), Practical Radiation Protection and Applied Radiobiology ( S. B. Dowd, E. R. Tilson and A Allen)



Dependencies: None
Syllabus: General Introduction, Tracer Methodology, N-15 Determination, Mutations, Isotope and Radiation Techniques in Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Studies, Nuclear Techniques in Pesticide Research, Insect and Pest Control, Animal diseases and Their Vectors, Animal Production and Health, Food and Environmental Protection, Principles of Radiation Protection
Assessment: Semester end examination and continuous assessment


Dependencies: NS 3001 is required
Syllabus: Industrial Radiography (RT): Basic principles of Industrial Radiography, X-ray equipment and Gamma Sources , Parameters, Geometric principles and exposure curves, Photographic recording, film characteristics and viewing ,Techniques and interpretation Ultrasonic Testing (UT): Fundamentals of ultrasonic, equipment and accessories , Testing techniques and limitations. Magnetic particle testing (MT): Fundamentals of magnetic particle testing and methods of magnetization, Inspection techniques. Penetrate Testing (PT): Physical principles, penetrate systems, Inspector procedure Techniques Eddy current Testing (ET): Physical principles Testing procedures Experiments: Radiography equipment & exposure, Darkroom practice, Interpretation of radiographs, Calibration of equipment , Thickness testing, void testing and weld testing, Various test systems & applications of magnetic yoke, Various test systems & applications, Eddy current testing
Assessment: Semester end examination and a practical test


Dependencies: None
Syllabus: Types of Radiation, their properties, disintegration of unstable nuclei, radiation sources. Units and definitions. Basic equations of Radioactive decay. Nuclear decay schemes, examples, Internal conversion, X-rays in radioactive decay. Properties of nuclear radiation, Interaction of radiation with matter, Interaction of alpha and beta particles, gamma rays, neutrons, attenuation coefficient, Bragg Curve, Detection and measurement of radiation, Gas filled detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors. Passive detection methods, Neutron detection, Radiation spectroscopy, statistics of Nuclear measurements, Nuclear electronics. Experimental study: Determination of very long and very short half lives, Identification of isotope. Absolute measurement of radioactivity, Coincidence method with applications. Radiation protection and safety Internal and external radiation protection, Radiation shielding, Radiological monitoring systems. Special properties of radioisotopes accounting for their widespread use. Radioisotopes as tracers: Examples of applications in hydrology, agriculture, medical, physical and chemical sciences Application of large radiation sources: Polymer modification, sterilization of medical supplies, food preservation, and insect control, radiotherapy, Nuclear analytical techniques: Neutron activation analysis, XRF, PIXE, Isotope dilution Radiometric dating methods: Dating of U containing samples, C-14 dating, Tritium dating, TL dating, Fission track dating.
Assessment: Semester end examination and continues assessments
Evaluation Method: 70% final examination and 30% continues assessments
Suggested readings: Detection and Measurement of Radiation (G. F. Knoll), An introduction to Radiation Protection (Alan Martin and Samual A. Harbison), IAEA Technical Reports


NS 3018 : HEALTH PHYSICS (30L, 30P, 3C)
Dependencies: None
Syllabus: General introduction, Review of Physical Principles: Atomic and Nuclear structure. Radioactivity, Interaction of Radiation with matter with particular reference to calculation of ranges of alpha and beta particles and attenuation of gamma rays, Detection and measurement of radiation dosimetry: Units, Absorbed dose exposure measurement, free air chamber, air wall chamber, exposure dose relationships, absorbed dose measurements. Brag Gray principle, Kerma, source strength, specific gamma ray emission. Internally deposited radioisotopes, effective half life, Dose commitment, neutron dose, Biological effects of radiation: Basic biology, Dose response characteristics, Direct action, indirect action, Radiation effect, acute effects, late effects, Radiation Protection Guides Organizations that set standards; ICRP, ILO, IAEA, NCRP; Basic radiation safety criteria, ICRP recommendations, ALI, DAC, External Radiation Protection: Basic principles, techniques of external radiation protection, Time, Distance, Shielding: X ray shielding, Beta ray shielding, Gamma ray shielding, Exposure rate calculation with and without build up. Neutron shielding, Internal Radiation Protection: Internal radiation hazard, Principles of Control, control of source confinement, environmental control, Control of man, Protective clothing, respiratory protection, Surface contamination limits: Waste management; high intermediate and low level liquid waste air borne wastes and solid wastes, Assessment of Hazard. Evaluation of protective measures: Estimation of internally deposited radioactivity, Personal monitoring, Radiation and contamination surveys, air sampling, Continuous environmental monitoring
Assessment: Semester end examination
Suggested Readings: Introduction to Health Physics (Herman Cember), ICRP Publications


Dependencies: None
Syllabus: Atomic and nuclear structure, Radioactivity, Interaction of radiation with matter, Radiation dosimetry, Radiation detectors, X-rays; production of X-rays and their applications in radiography, Computed tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Ultrasound imaging, Nuclear medicine; Radio nuclide production and radiopharmaceuticals; Scintillation camera; Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); Positron emission tomography (PET), Radiotherapy; External beam therapy; Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT); Brachytherapy; Unsealed-source therapy, Treatment planning; selection of treatment technique, Determination of dose/ time/ volume relationship, Radiation protection, Physics of different measuring instruments used in diagnosis; Blood pressure; Heart beat; Body temperature; ECG;EEG, Nonionizing radiation; Use of Lasers and optical fibers in medicine, Hazards of EM radiation, Radiation biology
Assessment: End of semester written examination
Suggested Readings: The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging (J.T. Bushberg, J.A. Seibert, E.M. Leidholdt and J.M. Boone), Physics in Nuclear Medicine (S.R. Cherry, J.A. Sorenson and M.E. Phelps), The Physics of Radiology (H.E. John), Physics of Radiology (A.B. Wolbarst), Biomedical instrumentation and measurements (L. Cromwell, F.J. Weibell and E.A. Pfeiffer), Medical Physics (J.R. Cameron and J.G. Skofronick), Radiation protection of patients (R. Wootton)